Henry, the son of
King John and Isabel de Angouleme, was born
October 1 1207 at Winchester Castle, Hampshire.
From the seal of Henry III
Henry III succeeded his father, John, to the English throne in Ocotber 1216 at the age of nine. When later he tried to raise taxes, civil war broke out. His opponents, the barons, were led by his brother-in-law, Simon de Montfort.
After defeat in the Battle of Lewes in 1264, Henry was forced by the barons to summon parliament and rule under their direction. The King's son, Edward, later Edward I, led the royalist supporters who regrouped, and in 1265 met the barons in the Battle of Evesham when Simon de Montfort was killed.
Henry III died in 1272 at the Palace of Westminster after a reign of more than 56 years. In that time English influence was reduced in France and Wales. Westminster Abbey, which had been rebuilt during his reign, became his final resting place. He was succeeded by his son, Edward I.
Eleanor became a nun at Amesbury and died June 24 1291.
Westminster Hall (right) and Abbey.